UsTK : Ultrasound ToolKit  version 1.0.0 under development (2020-06-26) under development (2020-06-26)
Tutorial: UsTK needle tracker 2D

Introduction

This tutorial expains how to perform 2D needle tracking on a needle insertion sequence of images, using a particle filtering method. See [1] for more details on the method used.

Running the tutorial

To run the tutorial make sure you downloaded ustk-dataset repository (https://github.com/lagadic/ustk-dataset), and filled USTK_DATASET_PATH environment variable to point on its location on your system.
Then run tutorial-needleDetection2D application. For information, here is the source code of the tutorial:

/****************************************************************************
*
* This file is part of the UsNeedleDetection software.
* Copyright (C) 2013 - 2016 by Inria. All rights reserved.
*
* This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License ("GPL") as
* published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the
* License, or (at your option) any later version.
* See the file COPYING at the root directory of this source
* distribution for additional information about the GNU GPL.
*
* This software was developed at:
* INRIA Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique
* Campus Universitaire de Beaulieu
* 35042 Rennes Cedex
* France
* http://www.irisa.fr/lagadic
*
* If you have questions regarding the use of this file, please contact the
* authors at Alexandre.Krupa@inria.fr
*
* This file is provided AS IS with NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING THE
* WARRANTY OF DESIGN, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
*
* Authors:
* Pierre Chatelain
* Alexandre Krupa
*
*****************************************************************************/
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <string>
// visp
#include <visp3/core/vpConfig.h>
#ifdef VISP_HAVE_XML2
#include <visp3/core/vpIoTools.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpMatrix.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayD3D.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGDI.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGTK.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayOpenCV.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayX.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpPlot.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpImageIo.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpParseArgv.h>
// ustk
#include <visp3/ustk_core/us.h>
#include <visp3/ustk_core/usSequenceReader.h>
#include <visp3/ustk_needle_detection/usNeedleTrackerSIR2D.h>
using namespace std;
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* COMMAND LINE OPTIONS */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
// List of allowed command line options
#define GETOPTARGS "cdo:h"
void usage(const char *name, const char *badparam, const std::string &opath, const std::string &user);
bool getOptions(int argc, const char **argv, std::string &opath, const std::string &user);
void usage(const char *name, const char *badparam, const std::string &opath, const std::string &user)
{
fprintf(stdout, "\n\
Write and read ultrasound sequences in 2d image files, and the associated xml settings file.\n\
\n\
SYNOPSIS\n\
%s [-o <output image path>] [-h]\n",
name);
fprintf(stdout, "\n\
OPTIONS: Default\n\
-o <output data path> %s\n\
Set data output path.\n\
From this directory, creates the \"%s\"\n\
subdirectory depending on the username, where \n\
sequenceRF2D.xml file is written.\n\
\n\
-h\n\
Print the help.\n\n",
opath.c_str(), user.c_str());
if (badparam) {
fprintf(stderr, "ERROR: \n");
fprintf(stderr, "\nBad parameter [%s]\n", badparam);
}
}
bool getOptions(int argc, const char **argv, std::string &opath, const std::string &user)
{
const char *optarg_;
int c;
while ((c = vpParseArgv::parse(argc, argv, GETOPTARGS, &optarg_)) > 1) {
switch (c) {
case 'o':
opath = optarg_;
break;
case 'h':
usage(argv[0], NULL, opath, user);
return false;
break;
case 'c':
case 'd':
break;
default:
usage(argv[0], optarg_, opath, user);
return false;
break;
}
}
if ((c == 1) || (c == -1)) {
// standalone param or error
usage(argv[0], NULL, opath, user);
std::cerr << "ERROR: " << std::endl;
std::cerr << " Bad argument " << optarg_ << std::endl << std::endl;
return false;
}
return true;
}
int main(int argc, const char *argv[])
{
std::string opt_opath;
std::string username;
std::string logFilename;
std::string opath;
std::string windowTitle;
// Set the default output path
#if !defined(_WIN32) && (defined(__unix__) || defined(__unix) || (defined(__APPLE__) && defined(__MACH__))) // UNIX
opt_opath = "/tmp";
#elif defined(_WIN32)
opt_opath = "C:\\temp";
#endif
// Get the user login name
vpIoTools::getUserName(username);
// Read the command line options
if (getOptions(argc, argv, opt_opath, username) == false) {
exit(-1);
}
// Get the option values
if (!opt_opath.empty())
opath = opt_opath;
// Append to the output path string, the login name of the user
std::string dirname = vpIoTools::createFilePath(opath.c_str(), username);
// Test if the output path exist. If no try to create it
if (vpIoTools::checkDirectory(dirname) == false) {
try {
// Create the dirname
vpIoTools::makeDirectory(dirname);
} catch (...) {
usage(argv[0], NULL, opath, username);
std::cerr << std::endl << "ERROR:" << std::endl;
std::cerr << " Cannot create " << dirname << std::endl;
std::cerr << " Check your -o " << opath.c_str() << " option " << std::endl;
exit(-1);
}
}
std::string xml_filename;
for (int i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
if (std::string(argv[i]) == "--input")
xml_filename = std::string(argv[i + 1]);
else if (std::string(argv[i]) == "--help") {
std::cout << "\nUsage: " << argv[0] << " [--input <needleSequence.xml>] [--help]\n" << std::endl;
return 0;
}
}
// Get the ustk-dataset package path or USTK_DATASET_PATH environment variable value
if (xml_filename.empty()) {
std::string env_ipath = us::getDataSetPath();
if (!env_ipath.empty())
xml_filename = env_ipath + "/needle/water_bath_minimal_noise_png/sequence.xml";
else {
std::cout << "You should set USTK_DATASET_PATH environment var to access to ustk dataset" << std::endl;
return 0;
}
}
//
// Initializations.
//
reader.setSequenceFileName(xml_filename);
// Read the first image
reader.acquire(I);
int n0 = 150;
#if defined VISP_HAVE_X11
vpDisplay *display = new vpDisplayX(I);
#elif defined VISP_HAVE_GTK
vpDisplay *display = new vpDisplayGTK(I);
#elif defined VISP_HAVE_GDI
vpDisplay *display = new vpDisplayGDI(I);
#elif defined VISP_HAVE_D3D9
vpDisplay *display = new vpDisplayD3D(I);
#elif defined VISP_HAVE_OPENCV
vpDisplay *display = new vpDisplayOpenCV(I);
#else
#error "No display available."
#endif
vpDisplay::display(I);
vpDisplay::flush(I);
// Initialize the needle model
vpMatrix controlPoints(2, 2);
vpImagePoint P;
std::cout << "Click on the entry point." << std::endl;
vpDisplay::getClick(I, P);
controlPoints[0][0] = P.get_i();
controlPoints[1][0] = P.get_j();
std::cout << "Click on the tip." << std::endl;
vpDisplay::getClick(I, P);
controlPoints[0][1] = P.get_i();
controlPoints[1][1] = P.get_j();
needle.setControlPoints(controlPoints.t());
std::cout << "Needle model initialized." << std::endl;
// Initialization of the needle detector
usNeedleTrackerSIR2D needleDetector;
unsigned int nControlPoints = 2;
unsigned int nParticles = 200;
needleDetector.setSigma(1.0);
needleDetector.setSigma1(10.0);
needleDetector.setSigma2(1.0);
needleDetector.init(I, nControlPoints, nParticles, needle);
std::cout << "Needle detector initialized." << std::endl;
// Output
logFilename = dirname + std::string("/needle.dat");
std::ofstream ofile(logFilename.c_str());
std::cout << "Results will be saved in " << logFilename.c_str() << std::endl;
unsigned int nPoints = needleDetector.getNeedle()->getOrder();
controlPoints = needleDetector.getNeedle()->getControlPoints();
ofile << nPoints;
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < nPoints; ++i)
ofile << " " << controlPoints[0][i] << " " << controlPoints[1][i];
ofile << std::endl;
vpColVector tipPose, entryPose;
//
// Start needle detection.
//
// printf(logFilename, "%05d.%s", n0++, extension.c_str());
unsigned int it = 1;
vpMatrix tipStd(2, 2);
vpColVector tipMean;
vpColVector evalue, evector;
vpMatrix rendering;
while (!reader.end()) {
reader.acquire(I);
needleDetector.run(I, 0.0);
tipMean = needleDetector.getNeedle()->getPoint(1.0);
entryPose = needleDetector.getNeedle()->getPoint(0.0);
cout << "Tip position: (" << tipMean[0] << "," << tipMean[1] << ")" << endl;
cout << "Needle length: " << needleDetector.getNeedle()->getLength() << endl;
cout << "Number of control points: " << needleDetector.getNeedle()->getOrder() << endl;
// Output
nPoints = needleDetector.getNeedle()->getOrder();
controlPoints = needleDetector.getNeedle()->getControlPoints();
ofile << nPoints;
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < nPoints; ++i)
ofile << " " << controlPoints[0][i] << " " << controlPoints[1][i];
ofile << std::endl;
// Display
char *noChar = new char[(int)ceil(log10(n0 + 1)) + 1];
sprintf(noChar, "%d", n0);
windowTitle = std::string("Frame ") + std::string(noChar);
delete[] noChar;
vpDisplay::setTitle(I, windowTitle);
vpDisplay::display(I);
rendering = needleDetector.getNeedle()->getRenderingPoints();
unsigned int n = rendering.getCols();
for (unsigned int j = 0; j < n - 1; ++j)
vpDisplay::displayLine(I, (int)rendering[0][j], (int)rendering[1][j], (int)rendering[0][j + 1],
(int)rendering[1][j + 1], vpColor::red, 2);
tipStd = 0.0;
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < nParticles; ++i) {
tipPose = needleDetector.getParticle(i)->getPoint(1.0);
tipStd += needleDetector.getWeight(i) * (tipPose - tipMean) * (tipPose - tipMean).t();
if ((it % 10) == 0)
vpDisplay::displayCross(I, (int)tipPose[0], (int)tipPose[1], 3, vpColor::blue);
}
vpDisplay::flush(I);
// sprintf(logFilename, "%05d.%s", n0++, extension.c_str());
// vpIoTools::setBaseName(logFilenames);
++it;
}
// delete and close everything
#if defined VISP_HAVE_DISPLAY
delete display;
#endif
ofile.close();
return 0;
}
#else
int main() { std::cout << "You should install xml2 to use this example" << std::endl; }
#endif

To run the turorial from UsTK binary directory you can use the following command:

$ ./tutorial/ustk/needleDetection/tutorial-needleDetection2D

You will see a window displaying a ultrasound image on screen.
Then the first step is to initialize the tracker, by clicking on the entry point of the needle and then on the needle tip. See the image below for the needle position in the sequence used in this tutorial:

needleSequenceFirstFrame.png
The first frame of the needle insertion sequence

Once the tracker is initialized with your 2 successive clicks, you will see the needle tracking result on top of the images: the needle is represented with a red curve.